Former president BJ Habibie said Tuesday that legislations on spatial planning would be ineffectual if implementation on the laws were lax.
"Don't assume that having a legal system is enough. It's not. The main thing is implementation," he said.
"Humans are the ones who created problems and humans are the ones who have to be able to solve the problems and nobody else," he said.
Indonesia has law on spatial planning but implementation has been poor. The capital city of Jakarta for example has only around 9.6 percent of open green areas, which is far from what the regulated 30 percent.
Habibie, who was also research and technology minister, was speaking at a national seminar on challenges of urban planning in the future.
Public works ministry Djoko Kirmanto opened Tuesday the seminar to commemorate World Habitat Day that fell on Oct. 5.
He said that Indonesia has seen large migration to big cities.
"We have made our cities our home. But, the challenges are complex. There are large scale urbanization that's inevitable, the problem to provide basic needs to the public, problem of slums, problems of transportation and lack of infrastructure, poverty, social and cultural problems, environmental degradation, as well as problems of natural disaster and climate change," Djoko said.
The seminar also featured research and technology minister Kusmayanto Kadiman, former research and technology minister Muhammad Zuhal, urban expert Muhammad Danisworo and former economy minister Dorodjatun Kuntjorojakti.