THE JAKARTA POST
The cash-strapped Indonesian government should invest some Rp 83.3 trillion (US$8.8 billion) in five years to meet its pledged target to reduce emissions, a new country report says.
These funds are needed to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 26 percent by 2020 compared to business as usual from forestry, energy and waste.
"About 36 percent of investment will come from the private sector," a country report distributed on the sidelines of the world leaders climate summit here shows.
The report entitled "The greenhouse gases emission profile, projection and mitigation strategies of Indonesia", said if rich nations provided Rp 168 trillion, then Indonesia could slash its emissions by 41 percent.
It was the first time the government was ready with such detailed data, but President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono did not mention this in his speech to the climate summit, although it was not clear why not.
Negotiator Masnellyarti Hilman said the highest share of the required funds would go to forests and peat land sectors which would contribute the greatest proportion of harmful emissions.
Assuming the 26 percent cut, Indonesia could cut emissions by 0.7 billion ton of carbon dioxide ( CO2 ).
Indonesia was expected to emit some 2.95 billion tons of carbon dioxide in 2020 under business-as usual conditions, the report said.
The country's main sources of harmful emissions are land use change and forestry management contributing 48 percent, the energy sector about 21 percent, peat fires 12 percent, and waste management 11 percent while agriculture would be responsible for about 5 percent of greenhouse gases.
The report says, emission cuts from forests would be achieved by combating illegal logging, avoiding deforestation, rehabilitating land and forest in watershed areas, while restoring production forest ecosystems and improving fire management.
Indonesian delegate Wandoyo Siswanto said that the tree planting program of "one man-one tree" would also contribute much to absorbing emissions.
"If each of 200 million Indonesian people plants one tree, we will have 200 million trees that could decrease emissions," he said.
To cut emissions from peat land, the report said the government needs to improve peat land management and build capacity in managing peat fires.
The government also plans to launch energy conservation programs to be implemented by the private sector and households.
The government also pledges to improve public transport including trains and mass rapid transit.
In terms of emission cuts from waste, government will enforce the 2008 law on solid waste requiring all districts to change from open dumping to more sanitary landfill systems and to separate methane ( CH4 ) and use it as a source of electricity.
Indonesia is not bound, as are rich nations, to cut emissions by five percent by 2012 under the Kyoto Protocol.
The United States has so far rejected the Kyoto Protocol on fears that the binding emission reduction would endanger its economy.
Yudhoyono said Indonesia's move to cut emissions was to help the planet prevent severe climate change regardless of the Protocol.
"... we did not have to do this. But we read the stark scientific warnings ... So we set our new reduction target, because we want to be part of a global solution," Yudhoyono told the climate summit Thursday.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its report says rich nations should cut emissions by between 25 and 40 percent by 2020, to avoid catastrophic effects on global warming.