‘Premanisme’, a root cause for violence in Yogyakarta
The Jakarta Post
As Yogyakarta develops and becomes Indonesia’s second most-popular tourist destination after Bali, the city that is dubbed the heart of Javanese culture is also witnessing its service sector growing, as can be seen in the emergence of numerous nightspots.
Such nightspots have led to the birth of private security services, referred to as preman (thugs) or premanisme (thuggery).
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