Intelligence agencies are a reflection of the society within which they operate. During the Cold War, a litmus test could differentiate between dictatorships and democracies: in dictatorships, one intelligence agency covered domestic and foreign operations; in a democracy, they were split between separate agencies.
So democracies like the United Kingdom had MI-5 for internal duties and MI-6 for external duties. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) remained within the United States’ borders, while its Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) looked outward.
A dictatorship like the Soviet Union, by contrast, covered everything — internally and externally — with the Russian intelligence agency or KGB. Indonesia also skewed in that direction.
These days, globalization has somewhat blurred the distinction. Many thr...
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