The Jakarta Post
Incumbent Joko “Jokowi” Widodo and running mate Ma’ruf Amin have released their platform for the 2019 presidential election, giving it the title Indonesia Maju (Indonesia Moving Forward).
The Indonesia Maju program, outlined in a 38-page document, aims to create a developed Indonesia that is “sovereign, independent and with characteristics based on gotong royong [mutual cooperation]” – a repeat of Jokowi’s vision when he first ran for president.
There are nine “missions” in Jokowi’s platform, each comprising several points and programs. The number of missions, nine, is also an echo of his 2014 Nawa Cita, or nine-point development program. However, while the President’s new platform certainly has areas of continuation from his first term, there are also some key differences.
Priorities that remain part of the new platform are human development, economic competitiveness, arts and culture, rule of law and defense and security. If the Nawa Cita put significant emphasis on maritime affairs, the new platform shelves the issue of maritime security and development under defense and security. Village and rural development also remains a priority.
New issues highlighted in the Indonesia Maju platform are economic inequality, sustainable development, bureaucracy and relations between the central and regional governments. In terms of the economy, Islamic or sharia-based finance has been given significant focus.
Here are the salient points of Jokowi-Ma’ruf’s Indonesia Maju platform:
1. Human development
The Jokowi-Ma’ruf pair aim to deliver basic services such as clean water and sanitation to support child development and health care. Stunting, a prevalent issue in Indonesia, is a focus of the pair’s child development agenda. In health care, Jokowi’s flagship National Health Insurance-Healthy Indonesia Card (JKN-KIS) program is intended to provide wider coverage and better services.
In education, the Smart Indonesia Program through the Kartu Indonesia Pintar (Smart Indonesian Card) will also continue. Affirmative action for the poor and people from underdeveloped regions will be available under existing programs such as the LPDP and Bidik Misi scholarship programs. Vocational schools will be designed to suit the needs of industry, so as to prevent a mismatch between education and the job market. Wider access to funds and scholarships will be provided for workers to increase their skills.
Religious education institutions will also be given added attention, as there is an emphasis on religious institutions as providers of “national character education” and an aim to instill religious values through education. There is also the Santripreneur program, described as a cooperative initiative between religious education institutions and the business sector. The aforementioned affirmative action will also be available for santri (Islamic boarding school students) and students in religious education institutions.
The focus on human development also encompasses gender equality and women empowerment. The pair’s program also introduces a gender-responsive budgeting system as well as objectives to increase female participation in education, with the goal of boosting women’s representation in politics and to empower women in the economy.
The Santripreneur program, described as a cooperative initiative between religious education institutions and the business sector, will be available for santri (Islamic boarding school students) and students in religious education institutions. (The Jakarta Post/Nedi Putra AW)
2. Economic competitiveness
Infrastructure development remains a priority, but the focus has now been turned to urban and digital infrastructure to accommodate the development of the digital economy. Infrastructure development will be integrated with special economic zones and industrial zones to support businesses, including micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs). One significant goal is to ensure access to house ownership for 5 million poor people, low-wage workers, soldiers and police.
Another program is industry revitalization for industry 4.0. This includes a change of policies in natural resources management, switching from a commodity-based economy to developing national industry, as well as increasing the minimum domestic component requirement. The preparation for industry 4.0 also calls for development in logistics infrastructure, the creation of innovation centers and more funding for research.
Jokowi-Ma’ruf aim to develop new economic sectors, with a focus on tourism, Islamic finance and the digital economy. Fiscal and structural reform will be conducted to increase efficiency and ease of doing business, as well as to reduce interest and increase productivity. Fiscal reform is aimed at reducing inequality, while tax reform is intended to deliver a sense of national justice.
3. Development equality
Jokowi’s agrarian reform will continue, in the form of asset distribution and land certification. The government will provide assistance to increase productivity to ensure an inclusive economy through, among other measures, providing technology to farmers and fishermen.
MSMEs and cooperatives will serve as a means for achieving economic equality. The pair promises to provide credits for funding, tax incentives and help to go digital and start exporting. An export-oriented marketplace is one of the objectives in this point.
MSMEs and cooperatives will serve as a means for achieving economic equality. The pair promises to provide credits for funding, tax incentives and help to go digital and start exporting. (Antara/Harviyan Perdana Putra)
Economic equality also relies on the principle of ekonomi kerakyatan (people’s economy), which according to the new platform, will center on religious institutions including places of worship. Zakat and waqf will serve as instruments for poverty alleviation and reducing inequality. Islamic finance and the halal industry will also be developed, and pesantren (Islamic boarding schools) are expected to have their own business units in partnership with the public and private sectors.
Jokowi will continue his decentralization program, strengthening regional economies through infrastructure development and fostering local industries. Subdistricts are to play a greater role in poverty alleviation through fiscal management rearrangement. Villages will also become an engine for economic development, in the form of village industries and the creation of competitive products. The village fund program will continue.
4. Sustainable development
The new platform still aims to have a one map policy for spatial development, combined with more monitoring and enforcement. Among other priorities, the pair will focus on waste management, including of hazardous waste and plastics.
Climate change mitigation will still focus on preventing forest fires and peatland conservation, developing renewable energy, ecofriendly public transportation and green spaces in urban areas. Indigenous people will also be involved in environmental conservation.
5. Arts and culture and national characteristics
Arts and culture development is mainly focused on culture for tourism and the development of the music and film industries. In music, the pair emphasizes the protection of intellectual property and musician welfare, while in film, the focus turns to funding, workers’ rights and people’s appreciation — the latest might be related to rampant piracy in the country.
Sports will be promoted and developed through education, leisure and as an industry. Sports infrastructure will be provided to villages. Partnerships and entrepreneurships will be fostered to develop the sports industry. The pair aims to improve the country’s competitiveness in sports, in particular those featured in the Olympics.
The national characteristics platform is focused on a mental revolution within the bureaucracy and the maintenance of social harmony, with the latter concerning moderation in religious activities. The youth is expected to play a role in tolerance building through interfaith and intercultural exchange programs. In addition, the youth is also encouraged to counter cyber-bullying and negative content on the internet. The government will also protect the youth from drug and alcohol abuse, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases.
6. Rule of law
The pair’s law enforcement platform focuses on the harmonization of existing laws and regulations and deregulation when needed. The aim is to foster creativity and productivity, in addition to ensuring security and justice for all.
Legal reform will cover both criminal law and civil law, and focus on reducing overcrowding in penitentiary institutions. Efforts will be focused on antidrug operations, as well as fighting vandalism and organized crime.
The pair promises to strengthen the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) and introduce a national anticorruption strategy. Cooperation among governmental institutions will be increased, and cashless transactions will be promoted to reduce money laundering and graft. (The Jakarta Post/Wienda Parwitasari)
The pair promises to strengthen the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) and introduce a national anticorruption strategy. Cooperation among governmental institutions will be increased, and cashless transactions will be promoted to reduce money laundering and graft.
Once again, Jokowi promises to resolve past human right abuses and to include human rights in the education curriculum. Religious freedom is guaranteed and the pair has taken a stance against “those who use force in the name of religion”. Other human rights issues include the protection of indigenous people’s rights, agrarian rights and disability rights.
7. Security and defense
Diplomacy is the first line of defense in Jokowi-Ma’ruf’s new platform. The pair emphasize participation in international organizations including the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA), with diplomacy identified as a means to attract investment and tourism. The pair promises to improve security in border areas and protect Indonesian citizens abroad.
Jokowi also aims to modernize the military, including by updating the main weaponry system and developing the cyber and defense industry. The defense budget will be reformed to pay greater attention to soldiers’ welfare and military development, although the new platform makes no mention of the existing minimum essential force (MEF) program.
Police reform will be conducted to gain public trust. Coordination with intelligence agencies will also be increased. The pair aims to create a better synergy among the military, police and other institutions in the government, and ensure a more integrated counterterrorism effort.
The bureaucracy program of the platform begins with the objective of improving the implementation of Demokrasi Pancasila. This includes guaranteeing civil rights and press freedom, as well as increasing digital literacy and strengthening the electoral process.
The new platform mentions the need for professional law enforcement, beginning with greater transparency in the recruitment and budgeting processes, to more education and training, smart office reform to a better retirement and remuneration system. For better efficiency and effectiveness, Jokowi-Ma’ruf will rearrange agencies with overlapping functions and pursue interagency relations reform.
An e-government system is expected to deliver better performance and transparency, with data integration as one key point. Online-based public services will also continue.
9. Central-regional government relations
The last key program in the new platform aims to deliver a better synergy between the central and regional governments. Jokowi-Ma’ruf aim to promote regional autonomy by designating subdistrict, district and villages as the frontier for the delivery of public services and the implementation of the Village Law. To combat widespread corruption at the regional level, the pair promises greater budget transparency. There will also be deregulation through the revoking of problematic bylaws.
Interregional cooperation is expected in sectors such as transportation, waste management and river basin area management. Regional governments are expected to improve cooperation to boost economic development and economic competitiveness.