Copenhagen (pictured), alongside Bern, shares the top spot on a list of the 20 most livable cities in Europe for European expats. (Shutterstock/File)
Copenhagen and Bern, Switzerland share the top spot on a list of the 20 most livable cities in Europe for European expats.
For their report, ECA International looked at expat living conditions in 480 cities around the world, looking at factors like climate, availability of health services; housing and utilities; isolation; access to a social network and leisure facilities; infrastructure; personal safety; political tensions and air quality.
ECA is a global mobility group for multinational companies.
Overall, the ranking is dominated by cities in Northern Europe and Scandinavia for their generous social welfare programs and quality of life.
"Cities in Scandinavia, Switzerland and the Netherlands have offered good livability across the board for many years now, with factors such as excellent infrastructure, reliable transport systems, and a high level of healthcare all contributing to their consistently excellent livability score," said senior analyst Neil Ashman in a statement.
The most attractive city outside of Europe, meanwhile, is Toronto, Canada, followed by Vancouver, Ottawa and Montreal. Interestingly, all four Canadian cities scored higher than cities closer to home like Belfast, London and Glasgow in the UK.
Ashman credits the country's low crime levels, clean environment and good public facilities for their strong desirability.
The only Asian destination to crack the top 100 list is Singapore, where English is spoken and which boasts a large expat community.
"Asian cities tend not to feature so highly for European expats due to significant differences in climate and language," he said.
Here are the top 20 most livable cities for European expats: