Several cities such as Mataram in West Nusa Tenggara, Palu in Central Sulawesi and, recently, Kalianda in Lampung and Banten have experienced various natural disasters, from earthquakes and tsunami to volcanic eruptions. Other disasters mostly affected by uncontrolled urbanization such as floods, landslides, drought, forest fires and so on are easily found in many cities. Various recovery efforts have started and are being carried out by the government at the national and local levels, as well as self-help efforts among citizens.
Disaster management, especially those related to climate change, comprises mitigation and adaptation. Mitigation relates to the causes of environmental degradation that leads to climate change, whereas adaptation covers all actions or efforts related to the impact. For example, in 2016 the government set targets in its first “nationally dete...
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