The appointment of Nadiem Makarim as the education and culture minister has sparked a variety of opinions regarding his capability to undertake educational reform, especially given his popularity as the founder of the successful ride-hailing start-up, Gojek.
Any attempt at educational reform in Indonesia should consider both the modernization and Islamization streams in the public sphere. Experts on Indonesian studies, such as Elisabeth Jakson and Lyn Parker, have warned that the local public sphere has always been a battleground between these two conflicting interests.
Management of the Indonesian education system is divided between the Religious Affairs Ministry and the Education and Culture Ministry. Nevertheless, religious instruction is compulsory at all schools, not only in religious schools but also in general education schools. Therefore, the Indonesian edu...
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