The long history of floods in Jakarta has been recorded since the early 19th century. The Dutch East Indies had established some facilities to reduce inundation areas near the city center. A prominent effort was the Kanal Banjir Barat (West Floodway). This facility was built to overcome increasing flood discharge due to massive tea plantations in the upstream area, especially Puncak in West Java. Other facilities such as revetments, small ponds and floodgates were also installed around the city.
Basic policies for flood countermeasures were implemented based on several studies. In 1973, the Netherlands Engineering Consultant (NEDECO) published the first master plan to overcome Jakarta flooding as a part of a project under the public works ministry. Since then, following studies have also suggested various solutions to Jakarta floods, including the “National Cap...
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