Indonesians are anticipating their fourth direct democratic presidential election since reformasi. As transitions of power from one presidency to another have happened peacefully since the fall of the Soeharto regime, scholars consider that Indonesia’s democracy has long “passed” Samuel Huntington’s “two-turnover test”, denoting its relative maturity.
Although pundits have recently criticized the heavy-handed approach of the government in dealing with several political issues, Indonesia’s democratic processes still adhere to the constitutional rules of the game.
One of the primary factors facilitating Indonesia’s consolidation of constitutional democracy, as argued by Indonesianist Marcus Mietzner, is the presence of independent state institution that adjudicates conflicts arising from ele...
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