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Jakarta Post

Jakob Tobing: Leading the nation through friendship

  • Grace Emilia,


Jakarta   /   Sun, December 14 2008   /  10:34 am

One of the most important achievements of Indonesia's reformation has been the amendment of the 1945 Constitution. The changes fundamentally transformed a highly centralized administration system into one which relegates authority and imposes a system of checks and balances. Among other things, the amended Constitution mandates direct parliamentary and presidential elections, limits presidential terms in office, clearly delineates executive-legislative-judiciary branches, protects human rights and further elaborates on clauses on education and economic matters. Prior to the amendments, the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) had elected the president, set State Policy Guidelines (GBHN) and could impeach the president. The impeachment of former president Abdurrahman Wahid in 2001 showed the MPR's true power. Subsequently, it came as a surprise when members of the M...