Bulk water security is one of the main problems in the management of our water resources. For most of Indonesia, the problem is not caused by the lack of rainfall, but due to anthropogenic causes such as land conversion, urbanization and industrialization.
Thus, cities such as Jakarta have nowhere to turn to for bulk water sources. Surface water is no longer an option since out of 13 rivers flowing in Jakarta, only one is healthy.
Groundwater is not an option either since land conversion into buildings and roads does not allow water to percolate into aquifers.
Furthermore, over-abstraction of groundwater has caused the destruction of groundwater sources leading to saltwater intrusion and land subsidence.
One of the solutions currently envisaged is through water transfer. I understand that the government is currently planning to construct long underground p...